ADDICTIVE BEHAVIOR AND ADOLESCENTS
ADDICTIVE BEHAVIOR AND ADOLESCENTS
Doctor of medical sciences, full Professor at European University,
Assistant Professor at European University, PhD student, D. Tvildiani Medical University,
The purpose of this study is to investigate the features of addictive behavior of adolescents that arise under the influence of a negative microsociety and chronic psycho-traumatic environmental factors. 68 adolescents with addictive behavior, aged 14-18 years, were comprehensively evaluated. The analysis of the material shows that when considering the mechanisms of the emergence of addiction, it is necessary to take into account disharmonious types of families and negative parenting style. A certain correlation was found between the type of family conflict and the manifestation of individual syndromes of the phenomenology of addiction. Timely identification of risk factors for addictive behavior is important to avoid the maladjustment of adolescents with addictive behavior.
Keywords: addictive behavior, disharmonic family, addiction.
Introduction: The relevance of the problem of dissocial disorders is determined not only by the frequency of occurrence, but mainly by its social significance, which, first of all, means the prevention of social maladaptation of the individual and the prevention of criminal acts of minors (4,16).
Among dissocial forms of behavior, addictive behavior is distinguished by its prevalence. Several studies have investigated the influence of family structure on the development of addiction (2,7). The studies showed that children from divorced families have higher rates of addiction [6,7,11]. The most important factor is considered to be antisocial families with alcoholism, criminal tendencies of parents and cruel attitude towards each other within the family (15).
The most pathogenic is the lack of parental control – father (1) and mother (8), especially harsh and inconsistent parenting, which, as studies have shown, is associated with children's behavioral problems (13,14). These include, directly or indirectly, domestic violence, parental drug abuse, maternal depression, family poverty, low-educated parents, stressful families, and single parenthood (3,6). Previous research has shown that parents who are inconsistent in their approach to their child may inadvertently encourage the child's negative behavior, which can lead to mutual escalation of negative behavior by both (12).
The purpose of this work was to study addictive behavior (non-psychotic register), which arose as a result of negative microsocial and chronic psychotraumatic factors.
We studied 68 adolescents with addictive behavior. To achieve the goal of the study, an adapted and valid questionnaire "Method of researching the personality of children and adolescents" was developed on the basis of existing standardized questionnaires (5,17). Based on the principle of comparison and correlation of these questionnaires, relatively simple and accessible questionnaires were compiled for adolescents, parents, teachers and juvenile inspectors. The questionnaires were good at identifying problems, which, however, were more accurate predictors of children's problems.
Statistical analysis of the material obtained during the study was performed using the SPSS -Statistical Package for Social Sciences program (Armonk, New York: IBM Corp.).
Factors of a negative microsociety were found in 41%, chronic psychotraumatic factors - in 59%. Based on the analysis of the material, the types of disharmonic families were identified in the following sequence: an incomplete family - 36 cases (53%), a pseudo-rigid family - 14 (21%), a destructive family – 6 (18%), a disintegrating family - 10 (9%), broken family - 2 (3%) cases.
Among the types of upbringing - hypopatronage was established in 36 (53%) adolescents, hyperpatronage - in 8 (12%), an inconsistent type of upbringing - in 10 (15%), a change in upbringing methods due to the dynamics of home life - in 10 (15%) and upbringing as a family "idol" - in 4 (6%) cases. Among family conflicts, intense family conflicts were observed in 26 (76%), moderate - in 21 (62%) and mild - in 6 (18%) cases. 71% of the surveyed adolescents had maladjustment of varying degrees.
Discussion: The analysis of the material shows that when considering the mechanisms of the emergence of addiction, it is necessary to take into account disharmonious types of families and negative parenting, since mistakes in education are often determined by the characteristics of the family environment, the psychological climate and, first of all, the type of family. The hypoprotective type of upbringing is predominantly found in the case of an incomplete and disintegrating family. A certain correlation was found between the type of family conflict and the manifestation of individual syndromes of addictive phenomenology, which are more pronounced during intense conflicts. Alcoholic excesses begin relatively early (9,15) and mainly manifest themselves in the form of short-term mild episodes. Excesses are mainly due to the alcoholic environment in the family and the immediate circle (53%). In the occurrence of episodic alcoholization, imitation and hedonistic mechanisms of motivation are predominantly represented (9,10).
In the addictive variant, adolescents with immature moral and ethical standards and the lack of proper social motivation predominate; Social adaptation remains intact for a long time.
An important role in the prevention of addictive behavior is played by the therapy of the negative consequences of childhood trauma, deprivation and violence. It is necessary not only to explain to the addict the wrongness of his behavior, but also to reorient him to other, more useful hobbies . At the same time, some so-called. “conversations” are obviously not enough, since  they do not suit the majority of the respondents and do not eliminate interest in drugs.
Adolescence is a time when it is still possible to "pull" them out of the existing vicious circle and return them to the correct social sources. Otherwise, the behavior becomes chronic and in the future we get a large army of addicts who are completely devoid of a sense of reality due to strong maladjustment, remain excluded from society, on the other hand, this is a big loss for society, as there are many talented and creative people among them.
All of the above mentioned indicates the importance of timely identification of risk factors for addictive behavior in order to avoid many of the complications associated with it. It is necessary to develop comprehensive programs that are specific and effective, which will allow us to avoid the maladjustment of adolescents with addictive behavior and the social complications associated with it.
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